- See also Wikipedia's article about "Richard Axel".
Richard Axel, CC '67, is a University Professor officially affiliated with the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He discovered a technique of cotransformation, a process which allows foreign DNA to be inserted into a host cell to produce certain proteins. Patents were filed. These are are known as the "Axel patents". They are used by many pharmaceutical and biotech companies, and have made a pile of money for Columbia. At one point, the university made around $100m per year from the patents. The patents finally expired in August 2000. Boo.
Richard Axel: One of the Nobility in Science, P&S Winter 2005